The University of Arkansas has published policies about various aspects of copyright compliance. Some are listed below.
"Works of authorship" covered by copyright include:
These are all covered by copyright.
But the work MUST be original and fixed and it might include some elements (such as data) that are NOT copyrighted. Generally, copyright runs for the life of the author + 70 years*
For more details, see Circular 92: Copyright Law of the United States
These things are not covered by copyright in the United States:
However, these should be attributed to the author, creator or generator even if they have never been written down, or plagiarism may be an issue.
Other works of authorship:
Inventions = protected by patent law
Business and product names = protected by trademark law
Trade secrets = protected by contracts and trade secret law