Presented here are two models for the research process with data elements highlighted.
While the models represent the processes differently, most models consider the following main phases:
Provocation, Ideation, Design
- Develop the research question
- Develop and revise research plans
- Collect preliminary literature and data from open data repositories
- Develop data management plans
- Pre-register research plans
Knowledge generation, Data Collection
- Use tools compatible with open sharing, and use automated workflow tools to ensure accessibility of research outputs.
- Collect data, using tools that automate formatting and curation tasks to ensure that digital datasets are interoperable and documented.
- In the case of physical samples and specimens, such as rocks, ice core samples, or tissue samples, researchers develop concrete plans to archive these according to disciplinary best practices.
- Document approaches to cleaning and preparing data for analysis in an electronic research notebook.
- Prepare data and tools for reproducibility, reuse, and participate in replication studies.
- Use open data techniques to analyze, interpret, and validate findings.
- Present their preliminary findings at conferences and refine their methods based on relevant comments and critiques
- Deposit an initial working paper in a preprint server and revise the paper based on the open peer review
- Prepare data in standard formats according to disciplinary standards and describe both data and analytical code in optimal ways for reuse and replication.
- Select the best venue for open publications, including articles, data, code, and other research products
- Select a public copyright license, such as the GNU General Public License for software or a Creative Commons license for other
works, including scholarly articles
- deposit the final peer reviewed articles in an openly accessible archive as required by their research funders
- Deposit research outputs in FAIR archives and trusted repositories to ensure long-term access to research results.
- Deposit research data and software in one or more data archives, with clear and persistent links among the article, data, and software.