Evidence Synthesis

This guide provides basic information on evidence synthesis as it relates to evidence-based practice.

Databases for Finding Reviews

Our library subscribes to many scholarly databases. Many have a "systematic review" filter for searching. You can also include "systematic review" or "scoping review" or any other review type as an additional search term.

Some popular databases that include the "systematic review" filter are:

This box was created based on Cornell's Evidence Synthesis Guide.

Cochrane Library

Search Cochrane Library's Cochrane Reviews, Trials, Clinical Answers using regular terms, medical subject headings (MeSH), or PICO.

JBI Evidence Synthesis

Search for systematic reviews published by the Joanna Briggs Institute. 

TRIP Medical Database

Search for high quality clinical research evidence with search terms or PICO. You can upgrade to the Pro version for a monthly fee.


Combines the best of Evidence-Based Health Care, information technologies and a network of experts to provide a unique tool for people making decisions concerning clinical or health-policy questions. Is searchable in English, Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese.

Systematic Review for Animals & Food (SYREAF)

Includes reviews and review protocols for feed and food and any area related in food safety, animal health, and animal welfare.

This box was created based on Cornell's Evidence Synthesis Guide.

Campbell Collaboration

Includes systematic reviews plus evidence and gap maps related to ageing, business and management, crime and justice, disability, education, international development, knowledge translations and implementation, methods, social welfare, children and young persons wellbeing, etc.

Health Evidence

Search Health Evidence for access to 9,316 quality-rated systematic reviews evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of public health interventions, including cost data. 

The Community Guide

Includes evidence reviews in effectiveness and economics relating to public health.


The Evidence for Policy & Practice Information Centre includes systematic reviews across health, education, welfare and other public policy sectors.

This box was created based on Cornell's Evidence Synthesis Guide.


PROSPERO is an international prospective register of systematic reviews. It also includes rapid reviews and umbrella reviews. It does not include scoping reviews.


OSF gives access to protocols from other researchers. Many scoping review protocols are deposited here.

This box was created based on Cornell's Evidence Synthesis Guide.

Grey Literature

What is grey literature? Grey (or gray) literature is literature that is not published in traditional academic or commercial publishing venues. Grey lit includes resources like clinical trials, registries, government publications, policy papers, white papers, working papers, theses and dissertations and much more.

Why grey literature? Evidence-based practice is targeted at looking at the "bigger picture" of evidence out there to inform clinical decision-making. Sometimes the publishing bias of "traditional" literature can mean we do not always have other types of evidence easily accessible.

A word of caution. While grey literature has an important part in research and reducing bias, grey literature does not adhere to the same peer-review process, therefore, it is important to use critical evaluation and appraisal when searching and reviewing it.